The American Psychiatric Association (APA) defines psychological disorders as “a set of impairments in thinking, feeling, and behaving that may be associated with problems in functioning, social relationships, or a variety of other important life activities, such as relationships with others, functioning in school, or managing stress.”
The APA does not define “mental health disorders” or “psychological disabilities.”
The American Psychological Association (APSA) does define mental health disorders as disorders with the following diagnostic criteria: depression and anxiety disorders; substance use disorders; posttraumatic stress disorder; psychotic disorders; and social phobia.
APA defines mental health as the inability to experience distress or to function well in everyday life, including: emotions; perception, mood, and behavior; functioning; self-esteem; and self-regulation.
APSA defines “psychiatric disorders” as “an abnormal physiological or psychological state that involves a substantial impairment of the functions of a person’s central nervous system, including an impairment of cognition, emotions, and behavioral responses.”
APSAs definition of mental health is quite broad, and encompasses any mental or behavioral health condition.
The APSAP also does not consider mental health a disability.
The DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association) defines mental disorders as: “any of a class of mental disorders, including but not limited to mental illness, disorders of thought, feeling or perception, and disorders of behavior or personality.
APSAS definition of psychiatric disorders is quite broader, and includes: personality disorders; affective disorders; addiction disorders; anxiety disorders and related disorders; depressive disorders; panic disorders; phobias; post-traumatic stress disorders; obsessive-compulsive disorders; schizophrenia; substance abuse disorders; psychotic conditions; and other mental disorders.
APSSD also does NOT define mental disorders in terms of the APSDS definition.
A diagnosis of psychiatric disorder can be a valid diagnostic test, but does not mean that the person is suffering from a mental health condition or is in need of treatment.
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) definition of “mental illness” is a broad term, and may include, for example, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive-type disorders, and some forms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
However, it is unclear whether the NIMH definition is the correct one for mental health and mental disorders and whether it is accurate for assessing someone’s psychological well-being.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) defines a mental disorder as: A mental disorder that is characterized by a disturbance of interpersonal functioning or functioning of the mind, especially by severe impairment of judgment, impulse control, or impulse control associated with the occurrence of a significant disturbance of the individual’s interpersonal functioning.
DSM-V adds the “inappropriate use of drugs and alcohol” and “inappropriately repetitive and intrusive thoughts” to the list of “serious mental disorders” in the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual, or DSM- V. The new DSM-5 DSM- VI includes the “disturbance of interpersonal communication” as a new criterion.
The diagnosis of a mental illness includes symptoms such as: loss of interest in usual activities or social relationships; difficulty in social interactions, such that social interaction is reduced or absent; difficulty with sleep or other sleep-related problems; difficulty concentrating; irritability or anger; irritable mood; problems with concentration; difficulty organizing thoughts or ideas; difficulty processing or organizing information; trouble concentrating or organizing facts or data; problems making plans; trouble thinking clearly or organizing ideas or data for further consideration; difficulty initiating, planning, or maintaining a healthy and normal social and interpersonal relationship; and trouble sustaining a healthy lifestyle.
The American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) defines “mental disorders” and other psychiatric conditions as: Inherent mental disorder; including, but not necessarily limited to, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, antisocial personality disorder, and obsessive- compulsive disorders.
DSM 3 was created in 1973, and DSM-III-R was created on December 7, 1989.
DSM is the official psychiatric classification used by the United States government and other countries.
In the DSM, symptoms are defined by a diagnosis based on medical criteria.
DSM refers to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnostic manual, which is the standard reference for mental disorders worldwide.
For more information, visit the American Psychiatric News site at http://www.psychiatrytoday.com/about/aboutpsychiatria/news/news-and-updates/dictionary-dictionary.html.